While the 1.5°C target is an important achievement from a climate justice perspective, it will be difficult to achieve it without drastic collective emission reduction measures. Given that countries` current emission reduction commitments, even if fully implemented, would force the world to a warmer world of 2.6 to 3.7°C, 1.5°C seems politically inplausible, if not technically impossible. Footnote 16 Climate modelling studies estimate that even a 2°C target can only be achieved through the significant use of so-called “emission negative” technologies, which refers to the large-scale introduction of carbon dioxide capture technologies. Footnote 17 Some studies even estimate that maintaining at 1.5°C would require the use of science fiction geoengineering technologies, particularly solar geoengineering. Given the inadequacy of existing global policies to achieve the goal of the Paris Agreement, the use and management of negative emission options has attracted increasing scientific attention. As vague as the Paris Agreement on climate justice may be, we will likely continue to face new environmental and economic injustices in areas such as food, energy and water, and that is why sociologists must also look at climate change from this perspective. This requires us to get out of Turkey and look at what is happening in the world. International agreements are initially signed to signal their intention to comply, but they become binding only through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or another formal adoption. Different countries have different processes. Former US President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the Paris Agreement in 2016. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan had made it clear that Turkey would not ratify the agreement if its demands were not met.
He recalled that Chancellor Angela Merkel and former French President François Hollande had made promises to him during the negotiations on the Paris Agreement.