Schengen Agreement Of Border-Free Travel

In 1999, the United Kingdom formally requested participation in certain provisions of the Schengen acquis – Title III on police security and judicial cooperation – in 1999, and this request was adopted by the Council of the European Union on 29 May 2000. [102] The UK`s formal participation in previously approved areas of cooperation was brought into effect by a 2004 Council decision that came into force on 1 January 2005. [103] Although the United Kingdom was not part of the Schengen area,[104] it has always used the Schengen information system, a government database used by European countries to store and disseminate information on individuals and goods. This has allowed the UK to exchange information with countries that are part of the Schengen Agreement, often to connect to legal proceedings. [105] In 2020, the United Kingdom has declared that it will withdraw from these agreements at the end of its transition period. The free movement of persons was a central element of the original Treaty of Rome and, since the beginning of the European Economic Community, nationals of the EEC Member States, on presentation of their passports or identity cards, could travel freely from one Member State to another. [4] However, systematic identity checks have been carried out at the border between most Member States. [Citation required] Schengen states that share a common land border with a third state are allowed, in accordance with the European Union Regulation 1931/2006, to conclude or maintain bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries for the purpose of implementing a border area system. [273] Such agreements define a border area of up to 50 km on both sides of the border and provide for the granting of permits for small border traffic for the inhabitants of the border area. Authorizations can be used to cross the EU`s external border within the border area, are not stamped when crossing the border and must include the name and photo of the holder, as well as a statement indicating that the holder is not allowed to travel outside the border area and that any abuse is punishable. The Schengen area originally had its legal base outside the European Economic Community at the time, since it was created by a sub-group of Community Member States with two international agreements: holders of an EU citizen`s residence card, issued by a Schengen Member State, can travel visa-free to another Schengen Member State, whether they are travelling or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss/British family. However, holders of an EU citizen`s residence card issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and the United Kingdom can only travel to the Schengen area without a visa if they accompany or join their family from the EU/EEA/Switzerland/UK.

[269] The result of these efforts – the series of agreements known as Schengen – has had an impact on the policy of border controls and visas in the Member States of the European Union (EU). Schengen opened the borders between the participating countries, but demanded changes to allow cooperation on common controls at external borders. Relations between Iceland and Norway, on the one hand, and Ireland and the United Kingdom, on the other, in the areas of the Schengen acquis applicable to Iceland and Norway are governed by an agreement approved by the Council of the European Union on 28 June 1999. Several Schengen countries – Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Austria – signed an agreement with the “Schengen III” in May 2005.